In fact, the basic principle of new process fermentation is basically the same as that of traditional fermentation, which is the process of transforming starch in grain into wine.
Starch (+ amylase) → glucose (+ Saccharomyces cerevisiae) → wine → (trace elements acid, aldehyde, lipid, alcohol, etc.) (saccharification process) → (pottery) → (esterification process)
1、 Basic principles of traditional fermentation
Starch, raw materials such as sorghum, rice, corn, potato and wild plants are usually steamed in high temperature (Baijiu), which makes the plant cells and cells completely broken. Starch granules from raw materials are expanded by water and gelatinized, so that they are affected by the enzymes of amylase and the bacteria in the process of starch hydrolysis. There are differences in the way of producing starch materials in the process of cooking due to the different Baijiu products. Among them, Daqu Qingxiang Fen Liquor is cooked separately with grain; Mixed steaming of grains and fermented grains is adopted for Wuliangye and Quanxing Daqu liquor with strong flavor of Daqu; Sichuan Xiaoqu liquor with the fragrance of Xiaoqu uses grain to soak and steam grain separately.
2、 Basic principle of new craft brewing
Understanding the traditional clinker solid-state fermentation process is of great help to master raw meal fermentation, because the basic principles of both traditional clinker solid-state fermentation and modern raw meal liquid fermentation are completely consistent. The difference is that the saccharification ability of traditional koji is not strong, so the raw materials must be cooked first to gelatinize, so as to facilitate the action of enzymes. Raw koji is suitable for enzymes with relatively strong saccharification ability and their decomposition enzymes, which directly act on the outer membrane of starch particles to decompose starch, generate dextrin, and then convert it into maltose to obtain fermentable glucose.
Starch is not only transformed into wine, but also into other substances. The composition and characteristics of decomposition products during saccharification are as follows
Starch: it is connected by many glucose as the basic unit. It can be divided into amylose and amylopectin. Amylose is composed of a large number of glucose molecules α 1. 4. It is dehydrated and condensed to form a chain structure without branching points, while amylopectin is a branched chain structure, which is in the two glucose residues of the branch α 1,6 combination. Where waxy sorghum, rice, corn and other starch is almost amylopectin; About 80% of grain is amylopectin and 20% amylose.
Amylose: with a relative molecular weight of tens of thousands to hundreds of thousands, it is easy to dissolve in warm water, the solution viscosity is small, it is easy to age, the enzymatic hydrolysis is complete, and it is blue in case of iodine solution.
Oligosaccharide: there are 3 ~ 10 glucose residue units. When amylose decomposes at least 6 less glucose residues, it does not react with iodine, because the chain of 6 glucose residues forms a circle of helix, which can bind 1 iodine molecule. The color reaction of iodine solution with starch and non decomposition products is blue, purple, red, brown and yellow (iodine solution color)
Disaccharide: for example, maltose formed by removing one water molecule from two glucose molecules and sucrose formed by removing one water molecule from one trehalose molecule and one fructose molecule
Fermentable sugar: monosaccharides such as glucose and fructose and the above disaccharides can be used by general yeast. Is a basic fermentable sugar.